.This expression is used when mentioning contradicting two things in a row in a sentence. This is usually used when writing or in very formal situations. When there is a final consonant, use –으나, and there is not, use –나.

Case 1: There is No final consonant


1) 비슷하다 (similar)


민경 씨와 성주 씨는 성격은 비슷하나 생김새가 매우 다릅니다.

Minkyung and Sungju have similar personalities, but their appearances are very different.

2) 다르다 (different)


가격은 다르나 성능은 거의 같습니다.

The prices are different, but their functions are almost the same.

3) 빠르다 (fast)


경제성장은 빠르나 시민들의 의식 수준은 여전히 낮습니다.

The economic growth is happening fast, but people’s sense of citizenship is still low.

4) 이해하다 (understand)


현재 상황은 이해하나 지금 저희가 할 수 있는 것은 아무것도 없습니다.

We understand the current situation, but there is nothing we can do at the moment.

5) 뛰어나다 (outstanding)


정철이는 성적은 뛰어나나 사회성이 부족해 보입니다.

Jungchul’s academic performance is outstanding, but he seems to lack sociality.

6) 부족하다 (insufficient)


시간이 조금 부족하나 모두 협동한다면 제 시간에 끝낼 수 있습니다.

We have not enough time, but if we all cooperate, we can finish it on time.

Case 2: There is a final consonant


1) 있다 (be)


가능성은 있으나 상황이 힘들기 때문에 너무 많은 기대를 걸 수는 없습니다.

There are possibilities, but because the situation is touch, we cannot expect too much.

2) 생겼다 (Something appeared; something was created)


새 백화점이 많이 생겼으나, 사람들의 소비 패턴이 예전 같지 않습니다.

There are now many new department stores, people’s spending patterns are not like those in the old days.

3) 말했다 (one said something)


법정에서 진실을 말했으나 그 진실이 저에게 불리하게 작용했습니다.
I told the truth in the court, but the truth gave me disadvantages.

4) 설치했다 (one installed something)


새 프로그램을 설치했으나 나아진 것이 없습니다.

We installed a new program, but there has been no improvement.

5) 사라졌다 (something disappeared.)


오래된 전통이 많이 사라졌으나 새로운 유행도 많이 생기고 있습니다.

Many old traditions have disappeared, but new trends are being created.

6) 구했다 (one saved someone.)


여태까지 유기동물을 많이 구했으나 아직도 많은 애완동물들이 버려지고 있습니다.

We have saved many stray animals so far, but still many pets are being abandoned.


Please make Korean sentences using –나 or –으나.

  1. 증가했다 (something increased)

→ ______________________________________________________________.

  1. 어려웠다 (was hard)

→ ______________________________________________________________.

  1. 인정하다 (admit)

→ ______________________________________________________________.

  1. 확실하다 (certain)

→ ______________________________________________________________.

  1. 심각하다 (serious)

→ ______________________________________________________________.

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